By Roger Lindsay
The Mini-Monograph sequence focused on post-war British army airplane kinds - frequently focussing on a particular variation of the sort. every one name contained a concise carrier heritage, together with information of color schemes and markings. a variety of b+w photographs illustrate the topic. An appendix supplies person plane histories.
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Extra info for English Electric Lightning F.Mk.1 and F.Mk.1a
5 24 Harmonic Balance Finite Element Method • Capacitor bank failure from dielectric breakdown or reactive power overload. • Interference with ripple control and power line carrier systems, causing operational failure of systems which accomplish remote switching, load control, and metering. • Excessive losses in – and heating of – induction and synchronous machines. • Over-voltages and excessive currents on the system from resonance to harmonic voltages or currents on the network. • Dielectric breakdown of insulated cables resulting from harmonic over-voltages on the system.
Switching loads on and off during part of the waveform results in short, abrupt, non-sinusoidal current pulses during a controlled portion of the incoming peak voltage waveform. These abrupt pulsating current pulses introduce unanticipated reflective currents (harmonics) back into the power distribution system. As mentioned earlier, these currents operate at frequencies other than the fundamental 50/60 Hz. The harmonics problem in electrical circuits has been an issue since the establishment of the AC generators, where distorted voltage and current waveforms were observed in 20th century.
Increased risk of system voltage collapse. Transformer heating. Increased risk of transformer damage. Adding a small DC offset in the flux may cause a power transformer to enter halfcycle saturation, which greatly distorts the current waveform . 22(b). At normal operation, practically the entire linear range of the magnetizing characteristic around the origin is used. Only a small DC offset is then needed to shift operation into the saturated part of the characteristic and, as this occurs only at the upper or lower part of the sinusoidal waveform, it is distorted in only one of the half-cycles.
English Electric Lightning F.Mk.1 and F.Mk.1a by Roger Lindsay