By Dennis A. Tighe
Tightly equipped right into a super-condensed define bulleted structure, this convenient, pocket-sized handbook information specific, up to date info for prognosis and therapy of Valvular center affliction. during the publication, tables and figures summarize vital scientific information and present specialist society innovations, whereas salient references direct readers to more information. present, speedy, and concise, for immediate entry at the ward or within the health facility!
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Extra resources for Dx/Rx: Valvular Heart Disease
0" B ;;::' I c Rest phase d I I ~. ;I , b Repo la(r~za t ; .. -:+ 1-- 1- f 1--- ,, 3 0', >~-- ,,, I 4 _ , ''1 2 Figure 1-38. 1. Beginning depolarization farthest zone . 2. End repolarization farthest zone . Beginning depolarization nearest zone. 4. End repolarization nearest zone. The subendocardial TAP (A) corresponds to the TAP of the part of the left ventricle farthest from the electrode . At the end of depolarization (b), this electrode is confronted with this part depolarized, that is, negative on the outside and positive on the inside , and an ascendant TAP phase 0 is recorded.
1 Atrial activation: Ploop The normal site of generation of pacemaker impulses in the heart is the sinus node, a small, elliptical structure, about 15 mm long, situated near the union of the superior vena cava with the right atrium (Fig. 1-20). Experimental studies  show 15 Figure 1-20. A. View of the three internodal preferential conduction pathways (1, 2 and 3). B. Right lateral view of the same pathways. O. - fossa ovalis; IVC - inferior vena cava; CS - coronary sinus; A VN - A-V node. that the earliest atrial depolarization begins at three points simultaneously, but it is not completely clear if the sinus discharge is a single impulse that emerges in the atria at three different places, corresponding to the three preferential internodal pathways (see below), or if there are three distinct pacemaker areas in the sinus node.
The term A-V junction includes the His bundle, A-V node and ajacent areas of specialized cells (noncontractile cells), the transitional cell zone . This zone extends to the coronary sinus and lower part of the atria and contacts the A-V node by three groups of cells in different areas: deep anterior, superficial anterior and posterior. In Figure 1-25 are shown the anatomic details of the A-V junction. 6. Rosenbaum uses the terms anterior and posterior divisions but , as is clearfrom Figure 1-29B , their situation is really supero- anterior and inferoposterior and we think these are more appropriate designations .
Dx/Rx: Valvular Heart Disease by Dennis A. Tighe