By Drinfeld V.G., Manin Yu.I.
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85% of the manufactured switches have shown switching behavior. 5V to −7V writes a “0” in the memory cell. Furthermore, the 8 × 8 crossbar has been programmed into a 4 × 4 memory array, a 4 × 4 demultiplexer, and a 4 × 4 multiplexer decoder. External circuits are needed to connect the decoders with diodes and capacitors. Nano-scale circuit design with crossbars has been investigated in ; both resistor-based and diode-based junctions have been considered by mapping logic resources to a crossbar via a programmed decoder.
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Signal energy lost to the environment is restored by the clock. Two types of switching methods are possible in the operation of QCA: abrupt switching and adiabatic switching. In abrupt switching, the inputs to the QCA circuit change suddenly and the circuit can be in some excited state; subsequently, the QCA circuit is relaxed to ground state by dissipating energy to the environment . This inelastic relaxation is uncontrolled and the QCA circuit may enter a metastable state that is determined by a local, rather than a global energy ground state.
Description of instantons by Drinfeld V.G., Manin Yu.I.