By Chris Barker, Chung-chieh Shan
This e-book takes innovations constructed through researchers in theoretical machine technology and adapts and applies them to the research of traditional language which means. Summarizing greater than a decade of study, Chris Barker and Chung-chieh Shan recommend the Continuation speculation: that the which means of a traditional language expression can rely on its personal continuation. partially I, the authors strengthen a continuation-based conception of scope and quantificational binding and supply a proof for order sensitivity in scope-related phenomena akin to scope ambiguity, crossover, superiority, reconstruction, unfavorable polarity licensing, dynamic anaphora, and donkey anaphora. half II outlines an leading edge substructural good judgment for reasoning approximately continuations and proposes an research of the compositional semantics of adjectives similar to 'same' by way of parasitic and recursive scope. It additionally indicates that convinced circumstances of ellipsis may be taken care of as anaphora to a continuation, resulting in a brand new reason behind a subtype of sluicing referred to as sprouting.
The publication makes an important contribution to paintings on scope, reference, quantification, and different principal facets of semantics and should entice semanticists in linguistics and philosophy at graduate point and above.
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They both are instances of the same shift in perspective, on which expressions can not only denote values, but also functions on their own semantic context. Multi-level towers: Inverse scope In this chapter, we generalize our system from one level of continuations to multiple levels. This generalization lets us account for inverse scope and for multiple pronouns while maintaining the empirical advantages of left-to-right evaluation order—in particular, the explanation for crossover. The analyses in previous chapters have all involved towers with at most two S S .
On the two-level tower system, however, the only available scoping is the default left-to-right scoping imposed by the combination schema. Our solution to both of these issues is to allow towers with more than two layers. This will involve generalizing the combination schema and the type-shifters lift, bind and lower. Once we have multi-level towers, keeping binding information separate is a simple matter of making use of different levels. Likewise, taking inverse scope is a matter of exploiting higher tower levels.
We assume that the account here is neutral across most theories of question meaning. We will, however, track in the syntax the kind of constituent that has been questioned. ), and so on. B will be a complex category label whose semantic type is whatever your favorite theory of questions says should be the kind of question built from a function of type α → β. S. S ⇒ John likes who? ’. , in Japanese), in English, in-situ wh-phrases for the most part must be interpreted as echo questions or metalinguistic questions, in which the questioner is asking for the identification of a word, rather than an individual.
Continuations and Natural Language by Chris Barker, Chung-chieh Shan