By Rolf Kehlhofer
With this 3rd version, overseas specialist Rolf Kehlhofer leads a workforce of eminent engineers for the lengthy awaited replace of the "bible" for combined-cycle plants.
Combined-Cycle fuel & Steam Turbine strength vegetation, third variation, is a finished review of the combined-cycle energy plant from a thermodynamic, technical, and monetary point of view. This new version supplies readers the newest technological advancements and useful examples from latest, state of the art combined-cycle vegetation. either training engineers and engineering scholars will locate this publication the definitive paintings on combined-cycle energy vegetation.
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Extra resources for Combined-cycle gas & steam turbine power plants
The first one is due to a boom in USA where substantial new capacity of combined-cycle plants were installed. The second peak in 2007 is due to large new construction in emerging countries such as China or India as well as in oil producing countries, and also the replacement of old power plants in Europe. GW/a 350 D 300 250 200 Solar+Wind DDiesel • Hydro NPP IIIIIISTP' ST-CC IIIiIGT 150 100 50 0 FY FY FY FY FY FY FY 77 82 87 92 97 02 07 * inc!. Biomass, Geothermal, Waste Figure 2-1 Market development since 1975 of new power plants sold per year The Availability of Fuel Critical for the future of combined-cycle power plants is the long-term availability of natural gas at reasonable price conditions.
By substituting equations (4-4) and (4-7) into equation (4-2): I1cc == I1GT'OGT + I1sT'OGT(l - I1GT) . QGT == (4-8) I1GT + I1sT(l-f]GT) Differentiation makes it possible to estimate the effect that a change in efficiency of the gas turbine has on overall efficiency: Gl1cc GI1GT - - == GI1ST 1 + - - (1 - f]GT) - f]ST GI1GT (4-9) Increasing the gas turbine efficiency improves the overall efficiency only if: Gl1cc > 0 GllGT (4-10) From equation (4-9): 1 - I1sT 1 - f]GT (4-11) Improving the gas turbine efficiency is helpful only if it does not cause too great a drop in the efficiency of the steam process.
Only a few years ago, the efficiency of a newly installed coal-fired steam power plant was at these levels, but with much higher investment cost and complexity! Coal-fired power plants are competitive for base load application in places where cheap coal can be easily transported. Economics 21 Table 3-2 Net efficiency of various power plants Type of Plant Combined Cycle Power Plant Combined Cycle Power Plant Net Efficiency LHV (%) (800 MW) 55-59 (60MW) 50-54 Gas Turbine Plant (250 MW) 38-40 Gas Turbine Plant (60MW) 35-42 Steam Power Plant (coal) (800 MW) (42-) 47 Steam Power Plant (coal) (60MW) 30-35 Nuclear Power Plant (1250 MW) Biomass Power Plant (30 MW) 35 28-32 Based on LHV of the fuel at 150 ambient conditions and equipment new and clean Nuclear power plants have a low efficiency because the light water reactor technology used today allows the generation of steam only with low temperature and pressure.
Combined-cycle gas & steam turbine power plants by Rolf Kehlhofer