By Helena K. Rene
In the course of China's Cultural Revolution, Chairman Mao Zedong's "rustication application" resettled 17 million city youths, often called "sent downs," to the geographical region for handbook exertions and socialist reeducation. This publication, the main complete research of this system to be released in both English or chinese language to this point, examines the mechanisms and dynamics of nation craft in China, from the rustication program's inception in 1968 to its legit termination in 1980 and real crowning glory within the 1990s.
Rustication, within the ideology of Mao's peasant-based revolution, shaped a severe component to the Cultural Revolution's higher assault on bureaucrats, capitalists, the intelligentsia, and "degenerative" city existence. This ebook assesses the program's origins, improvement, association, implementation, functionality, and public administrative outcomes. It was once the defining event for plenty of chinese language born among 1949 and 1962, and lots of of China's modern leaders went throughout the rustication program.
The writer explains the lasting impression of the rustication application on China's modern administrative tradition, for instance, displaying how and why forms endured or even grew greater in the course of the wrenching chaos of the Cultural Revolution. She additionally specializes in the particular problems lady sent-downs confronted by way of paintings, pressures to marry neighborhood peasants, and sexual harassment, predation, and violence. The author's mom and dad have been either despatched downs, and she or he used to be capable of interview over fifty former despatched downs from round the state, anything by no means formerly complete.
China's Sent-Down Generation demonstrates the rustication program's profound long term results for China's paperwork, for the unfold of corruption, and for the households traumatized via this authoritarian social scan. The publication will entice teachers, graduate and undergraduate scholars in public management and China stories courses, and people who have an interest in China's Cultural Revolution period.
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Extra resources for China’s Sent-Down Generation: Public Administration and the Legacies of Mao’s Rustication Program
Peng also charged that Mao’s populist ideas took a toll on military professionalism. Later Peng penned a personal letter to Mao condemning the Maoist Marxians as responsible for the economic catastrophes brought forth by the Great Leap Forward. In July the Peng–Mao confrontation proceeded into the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee in Lushan where Mao accused Peng of engaging in a conspiracy with Soviet general secretary Nikita Khrushchev. Mao also retaliated against his critics by threatening to form and lead a new peasant-based army to take control of the party-state if his policies were dismantled (Meisner 1999, 232).
Industrialization and its attendant urbanization reduce social structures of ascription and entrenched privilege based on inherited status and wealth. In feudalistic and quasi-feudalistic economies, modernization frees labor from the land. In China “the long deferred antifeudal revolution in the countryside” did not come until land reform was completed in 1952 (Meisner 1977, 1019). Urbanization weakens traditional social controls as people retain anonymity while interacting with one another, and these restraints are partly replaced by bureaucratically administered governmental restrictions on individuals’ behavior (Mayo 1945).
He encouraged the party to “let a hundred ﬂowers bloom together, let the hundred schools of thought contend” (Fairbank and Goldman 2006, 364). Initially reluctant to “bloom” and “contend,” intellectuals were nevertheless impelled to voice their views by May 1957. Soon thousands of big-character posters appeared on the walls of universities, colleges, and public buildings everywhere. Hundreds of letters poured into the press. Debates, rallies, and demonstrations surged as people scathingly vented their frustration and anger.
China’s Sent-Down Generation: Public Administration and the Legacies of Mao’s Rustication Program by Helena K. Rene