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B. ∀x (person(x) ∧ likes(m, x)) → x = s In Chapter 4, we will turn to the question of what assumptions would have to be made so that this reduction is valid. So far in this section, we have treated the meanings of sentences with a focus sensitive expression as if they were determined entirely by lexical meaning, focus positioning, and syntax. However, the restricting effect that context has on the interpretation of focused sentences also needs to be built into Alternative Semantics. g. Adam, Bertha and Casper.

G. 11 Schwarzschild does this by defining Given in terms of entailment. 12 Consequently, he turns expressions of any type into propositions using EXISTENTIAL CLOSURE. Existential closure is “a type shifting operation that raises expressions to type t, by existentially binding unfilled arguments” (Schwarzschild 1999: 147). For 11 Moreover, he shows that it is possible to do so with minimal syntactic stipulation: we refer the reader to Schwarzschild (1999) for full details, and will merely describe here aspects of his system most relevant to our purposes.

The context set is updated until a single possible world is reached. That is, the question What is the way things are? has been answered. 50). e. 50:1) the common ground is empty and the context set is W. 50:2) interlocutor A asserts that Kim loves Sandy, which is true in w and w . 50:3) the common ground contains the proposition KIM LOVES SANDY and the context set is {w, w } (the intersection of W and {w, w }). 50:4), speaker B asserts that Sandy hates Kim, which is true in w and w . 50:5) the common ground contains both the proposition KIM LOVES SANDY and the proposition SANDY HATES KIM, and the context set is {w } (the intersection of {w , w } and {w, w }).

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Case, Scope, and Binding by M. Bittner

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