By Anthony H. Aletras PhD (auth.), Raymond Y. Kwong MD, MPH (eds.)
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) is a swiftly evolving device for cardiovascular analysis, and is changing into more and more vital in guiding cardiovascular interventions. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging offers a cutting-edge compilation of professional contributions to the sphere, each one analyzing general and pathologic anatomy of the cardiovascular process as assessed via magnetic resonance imaging. practical concepts akin to myocardial perfusion imaging and evaluate of move speed are emphasised, in addition to the fascinating parts of artherosclerosis plaque imaging and detailed magnetic resonance imaging. This state-of-the-art quantity represents a multi-disciplinary method of the sector, with contributions from specialists in cardiology, radiology, physics, engineering, body structure and biochemistry, and provides new instructions in noninvasive imaging.
Contemporary and complete, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a crucial source for cardiologists and radiologists striving to steer the best way into the way forward for this significant field.
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Additional resources for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Peripheral triggering, which can be obtained from MRI-compatible optical fingertip pulse monitors, provides a less-preferred but often adequate alternative if a satisfactory ECG signal cannot be obtained (Fig. 3). Images can be significantly more blurred because triggering off the peripheral pulse wave is delayed in relation to the R wave of the QRS complex. Another theoretical alternative that has been described is “wireless” gating, by which periodic changes of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal from the beating heart during the cardiac cycle can be used as information to synchronize the MRI data acquisition for acquiring a crisp image without the need for electrodes and leads; however, this is not used in current clinical practice.
19A–E, it is easy for us to see the different frequencies generated by the precessing magnetization vectors seen in Fig. 18. However, the picture becomes more Basic MRI Physics 21 Fig. 20. (A) The sum of all sinusoidal waveforms originating from spins along various x-axis positions (Fig. 19F) contains the spatial information within it. (B) The Fourier transformation extracts the spectral information from the detected signal. Note that the x-axis represents frequencies in Hz. (C) Frequencies can be converted into position along the x-axis because the encoding strength of the readout gradient is known.
Also, there may be variation in degree of breath holding with each breath, leading to changes in position of the heart and potential misregistration artifact if a series of contiguous images is acquired over sequential breath holds (12). There may even be variations in diaphragm position during a single breath hold. Imaging with breath holding at end-tidal expiration is one technique that can be used to reduce variability in diaphragm position between and within breath holds because it is a relatively reproducible condition (13).
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Anthony H. Aletras PhD (auth.), Raymond Y. Kwong MD, MPH (eds.)