Download e-book for iPad: Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Principles, Techniques, and by Kyung Cho, Irvin F. Hawkins

By Kyung Cho, Irvin F. Hawkins

ISBN-10: 0824728319

ISBN-13: 9780824728311

ISBN-10: 1420016261

ISBN-13: 9781420016260

With an abundance of illustrations and tables to focus on serious info, this resource offers a pragmatic method of using CO2 as a distinction agent for diagnostic angiography, vascular intervention, and different interventional systems in either adults and pediatrics. essentially laying-out key issues within the technological know-how, method, and scientific functions of this strategy, this resource might be a relentless significant other for physicians treating a number of issues affecting arterial and venous flow.

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Extra info for Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Principles, Techniques, and Practices

Example text

S. Currently the hand-held syringe and the plastic bag system are used for CO2 delivery. The hand-held syringe is a simple method of CO2 delivery. This is inconvenient when multiple injections are required. When filling the syringe with CO2, it should be filled and emptied three times before filling for injecting into the catheter. Once the syringe has been filled with CO2, the tip of the syringe should be closed using a one-way stopcock. When the syringe is open to the ambient air, CO2 in the syringe is rapidly replaced by air through gas diffusion because of the difference in the partial pressure of CO2 between the syringe and the air.

The less viscous CO2 bubble shows a blunted head with a wide gap at the anterior side of the gas bubble compared to a smooth, rounded edge on the posterior side. Generally, sufficient volumes of gas should be delivered for a given vessel to optimize luminal gas filling. Selective and superselective delivery of CO2 usually results in better filling of the distal branches. 9 mm), and 32 Cho et al. Figure 10 Schematic diagram of a flow model. A catheter is introduced into the vessel through the vascular sheath.

Never connect the catheter directly to the CO2 cylinder. This avoids the potential inadvertent delivery of excessive and possibly lethal volumes. b. Do not use additional stopcocks. Malpositioned stopcocks can result in room air contamination and air embolus. Avoid explosive delivery. Purging fluid (blood or saline) from the angiographic catheter results in a more consistent delivery with less discomfort. Initially, inject small volumes of CO2. Increase or decrease volume as required for specific anatomy.

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Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Principles, Techniques, and Practices by Kyung Cho, Irvin F. Hawkins

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