By Maureen Clerc, Laurent Bougrain, Fabien Lotte
Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) are units which degree mind job and translate it into messages or instructions, thereby beginning up many probabilities for research and alertness. This booklet presents keys for realizing and designing those multi-disciplinary interfaces, which require many fields of craftsmanship resembling neuroscience, data, informatics and psychology.
This moment quantity, expertise and purposes, is concentrated at the box of BCI from the viewpoint of its finish clients, comparable to people with disabilities to practitioners. masking scientific purposes and the sector of games, the publication then is going directly to discover consumer wishes which force the layout and improvement of BCI. The software program used for his or her layout, basically OpenViBE, is defined step-by-step, earlier than a dialogue at the use of BCI from moral, philosophical and social perspectives.
The simple notions built during this reference e-book are meant to be obtainable to all readers drawn to BCI, no matter what their historical past. extra complex fabric is usually provided, for readers who are looking to extend their wisdom in disciplinary fields underlying BCI.
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Extra info for Brain-Computer Interfaces 2: Technology and Applications
One MCS and one LIS patient managed to modulate their EEG, proving that they were performing the task, but these modulations were different from those observed in healthy subjects [GOL 11]. Another team performed the study with the instructions: “each time that you hear the sound, imagine clenching your right ﬁst, then relax” and “imagine wiggling your toes, then relax”. One initial study considered 16 patients diagnosed as vegetative. Three patients modulated their EEG consistently in response to instructions [CRU 11].
A theoretically based index of consciousness independent of sensory processing and behavior”, Science Translational Medicine, vol. 5, p. 198ra105, 2013. , L UAUTÉ J. , “Boosting cognition with music in patients with disorders of consciousness”, Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 734–742, 2015. M. et al. “Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness”, Brain: A journal of neurology, vol. 132, pp. 2541–2552, 2009. , M C C READIE K.
In group studies, these methods succeeded in differentiating vegetative from MCS patients (see [LEH 12b] for a review). Disordered states of consciousness are associated with slowed basic rhythms. VS compared to MCS patients show an increase in the lowest frequencies (1–4 Hz delta band) and a decrease in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) [LEH 12a, SIT 14, FIN 12]. Patients’ behavioral assessments are strongly negative correlated with brain signal complexity, which can be identiﬁed by various measures of entropy [SIT 14, GOS 11, WU 11].
Brain-Computer Interfaces 2: Technology and Applications by Maureen Clerc, Laurent Bougrain, Fabien Lotte