New PDF release: Argument Evaluation and Evidence

By Douglas Walton

ISBN-10: 3319196251

ISBN-13: 9783319196251

ISBN-10: 331919626X

ISBN-13: 9783319196268

​This monograph poses a sequence of key difficulties of evidential reasoning and argumentation. It then bargains ideas completed through utilizing lately constructed computational types of argumentation made on hand in synthetic intelligence. every one challenge is posed in the sort of method that the answer is well understood. The booklet progresses from confronting those difficulties and providing suggestions to them, construction an invaluable common approach for comparing arguments alongside the way in which. It offers a hands-on survey explaining to the reader tips to use present argumentation tools and ideas which are more and more being carried out in additional designated methods for the applying of software program instruments in computational argumentation structures. It indicates how using those instruments and strategies calls for a brand new method of the strategies of information and rationalization compatible for various settings, equivalent to problems with public safeguard and wellbeing and fitness, debate, criminal argumentation, forensic proof, technology schooling, and using professional opinion facts in own and public deliberations.

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This notion of understanding is in turn based on scripts of a kind employed in artificial intelligence research (Schank 1986). A script is a connected sequence of events or actions that both parties understand in virtue of their common knowledge about the ways things can be generally expected to happen in situations both are familiar with. In the famous restaurant script (Schank 1986), a man enters a restaurant, goes to a table, picks up a menu, orders soup, eats the soup when it arrives, pays the bill when it arrives, gets up and leaves the restaurant.

They can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something will come to pass. There are few people, however, who, if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own inner consciousness what the steps were which led up to that result. This power is what I mean when I talk of reasoning backward, or analytically. There is a way to model the abductive reasoning used in the Watson case as a backward sequence of explanations of the kind that can be contrasted with the forward sequence of argumentation shown in Figs.

In short the relationship between the two arguments, represented in this way, shows the second one to countervail the undercutting argument in the first one. The following example was used in (Prakken 2003, 858) to link Pollock’s argumentation scheme for argument from perception to common types of arguments used in reasoning about legal evidence. This example can be expressed in the following form (Walton 2006, 5). Major Premise: If something looks like an affidavit, then it is an affidavit. Minor Premise: This object looks like an affidavit.

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Argument Evaluation and Evidence by Douglas Walton

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