By J. F. Nunn (Auth.)
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Extra info for Applied Respiratory Physiology
The thoracic cage comprises the rib cage and the diaphragm. Each is a muscular structure and can be considered as an elastic structure only when the muscles are relaxed, and that is not easy to achieve except under the conditions of paralysis. Relaxation curves have been prepared relating pressure and volumes in the sup- Pressure/volume relationships of the lung plus thoracic cage 35 posedly relaxed subject but it is now doubtful whether true relaxation could be achieved. , 1979). This maintains the FRC about 400 ml above the value in the paralysed or anaesthetized patient.
Emphysema is unique in that static pulmonary compliance is increased, as a result of destruction of pulmonary tissue and loss of both elastin and surface retraction. The FRC is increased. 6, and therefore the dynamic compliance is commonly reduced. In asthma the pressure/volume curve is displaced upwards without a change in compliance (Finucane and Colebatch, 1969). The elastic recoil is nevertheless reduced at normal transmural pressure and the FRC is therefore increased. Most other types of pulmonary pathology result in decreased lung compliance, both static and dynamic.
As the bar is moved to the right, the surface film is concentrated and the surface tension changes as shown in the graph on the right of the Figure. During expansion, the surface tension increases to 40 mN/m, a value which is close to that of plasma but, during contraction, the surface tension falls to 19 mN/m, a lower value than any other body fluid. The relationship between pressure and area is different during expansion and contraction, and a typical hysteresis loop is described. The consequences of these changes are very important.
Applied Respiratory Physiology by J. F. Nunn (Auth.)