By Spilios Argyropolous;Adrian Feeney;David Nutt
In scientific perform, complicated sufferers with comorbidity of temper and nervousness issues are arguably the norm. those volumes concentrate on this sector, offering up to date stories of the conceptual matters that confront the clinician whilst comparing those sufferers Concise and easy-to-read, additionally they current a realistic method of the administration and therapy of sufferers with comorbid temper and nervousness issues.
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Extra resources for Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Pocketbook: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
The lack of aggregation is, however, good evidence that there is no genetic component to the aetiology. 9% and 41%. 8% and 8%, thus suggesting a possible genetic component to aetiology (Lepine and Pelissolo 1999). Twin studies The results from twin studies are somewhat mixed. The Virginia Twin Registry study (Kendler et al 1993) identified 63 pairs of twins with panic disorder. When the DSM-III-R criteria were applied, the concordance for monozygotes was 24% and for dizygotes only 11%. The heritability values were much less if fewer stringent diagnostic criteria were applied to this cohort.
In a prospective study, 423 patients were followed up 4 years after completing a pharmacological treatment trial (Katschnig et al 1996). A sizeable proportion (three out of five) was still experiencing occasional panic attacks and a significant number (two out of five) had at least moderate agoraphobia. However, the disability attributed to the illness had a more favourable outcome. About one in five patients was reporting dysfunction at work or home, whereas one in three still experienced difficulties in his or her social life.
Carbon dioxide Inhalation of a single breath of 35% carbon dioxide provokes panic attacks in 70% of panic disorder patients and 10% of controls. This is not the case in obsessive–compulsive disorder. The vulnerability of panic disorder patients to panic attacks provoked by carbon dioxide is diminished by successful treatment with clonazepam or fluvoxamine (Malizia and Nutt 1999). Cholecystokinin-4 Cholecystokinin-4 (CCK-4) is capable of provoking both panic attacks in panic disorder patients and anxiety symptoms in normal controls.
Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Pocketbook: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia by Spilios Argyropolous;Adrian Feeney;David Nutt