By Yoshiyuki Kikuchi
Anglo-Japanese and American-Japanese connections in chemistry had a tremendous influence at the institutionalization of medical and technological better schooling in Japan from the overdue 19th century and onwards. They helped outline the constitution of jap clinical pedagogical and examine approach that lasted good into the post-World global II interval of huge technological improvement, whilst it turned one of many greatest prone of chemists and chemical engineers on the planet subsequent to Europe and the U.S.. In telling this tale, Anglo-American Connections in eastern Chemistry explores a variety of websites of technology schooling corresponding to educating laboratories and school rooms - the place British and American academics mingled with eastern scholars - to shed new mild at the lab as a domain of worldwide human come upon and complex social kinfolk that formed medical perform.
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Extra info for Anglo-American Connections in Japanese Chemistry: The Lab as Contact Zone
28 Charles Graham in his student days at UCL was strongly influenced by of Williamson and his liberal science model. 31 Graham concentrated on studying scientific subjects at UCL in accordance with Williamson’s liberal science model. Graham was appointed assistant to Williamson around this time, and he was awarded a doctor of science degree from the same institution in 1866 while tutoring Japanese students. ”34 However, laboratories were by no means the only contact zone. 35 It is worth noting, however, that there seems to have been an invisible barrier between the Williamsons and Chōshū students within his typically middle-class Victorian household.
Murray, Williamson, and Graham after Contact with Japanese Students This chapter has highlighted how the Chōshū and Satsuma students’ visions of science, technology, and education were affected by their encounter with Williamson and Graham and, in Satsuma’s case, were strengthened by their experience of attending Rutgers College, a particular type of American landgrant college. One remaining question is whether and to what extent the interaction between UCL chemists or American teachers and their Japanese students was one-sided.
Lastly, by looking at the collaboration between graduates from Tokyo University and the Imperial College of Engineering, I will suggest that the two pedagogical approaches are mutually complementary rather than exclusive. Pre-Meiji Legacies The Tokyo Kaisei Gakkō was not established de novo by the Meiji government. It had a long history with many antecedents, the most important of which was the Bansho Shirabesho, a product of the Tokugawa Shogunate’s A M E R I C A N A N D B R I T I S H C H E M I S T S I N E A R LY M E I J I J A PA N 29 policy on Western learning in the Bakumatsu or late Tokugawa period.
Anglo-American Connections in Japanese Chemistry: The Lab as Contact Zone by Yoshiyuki Kikuchi