By Gordon L. Atkins
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Extra info for An Outline of Energy Metabolism in Man
Key enzymes are so called because they are usually found to be rate limiting under normal conditions of metabolism. An enzyme's activity is controlled by (i) displacing a near-equilibrium reaction from one position to another with a higher or lower rate; (ii) altering the enzyme's configuration so that its activity is greater or smaller; or (iii) by covalently modifying the enzyme's structure and thereby changing its activity. In this brief account distinctions are not made between the three modes of action.
35 other \ tissues ) r aceiyi coenzyme A acetoacetyl MMyme Δ L u acetoacetate NÀDH NAD + ^-hydroxybutyrate Fig. 4 Ketone body metabolism The two important ketone bodies are acetoacetate and /3-hydroxybutyrate. They are formed only in the liver and when large amounts of acetyl coenzyme A are present from ß-oxidation. The reaction can be summarized (Fig. 4) as two acetyl coenzyme A units (2 χ C2) condensing to give one acetoacetate (C4). Reduction with NADH gives ß-hydroxybutyrate. Liver is the only tissue which has the enzymes necessary for producing free acetoacetate and ß-hy droxybuty rate.
It releases energy as free fatty acids and free glycerol. Brain and the central nervous system normally use glucose as the sole source of energy. During fasting acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate are important, however, and after three or four days they become the major fuels. Amino acids may also be used to some extent during fasting. In general, the brain can only use water soluble compounds; free fatty acids are not oxidized. 57 I y glucosej ^ glucose6-phosphate free fatty acids fructose-6-phosphate fructose diphosphate acyl coenzyme Δ phospho enol pyruvate acyl coenzyme Δ Fig.
An Outline of Energy Metabolism in Man by Gordon L. Atkins