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There are several reasons for the existence of such dimensions. It is a logical possibility, since out of the six extra dimensions of string theory only Topics in string phenomenology 9 two are needed for lowering the string scale, and thus the effective p-brane of our world has in general d ≡ p − 3 ≤ 4. Moreover, they can be used to address several physical problems in braneworld models, such as obtaining different SM gauge couplings, explaining fermion mass hierarchies due to different localization points of quarks and leptons in the extra dimensions, providing calculable mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, etc.

11. 4). an interesting spectrum of KK states for the Standard model, different from the naive choices that have appeared hitherto: the only Standard Model particles that have KK descendants are the W bosons as well as the hypercharge gauge boson. However, since the hypercharge is a linear combination of the three U (1)’s, the massive U (1) KK gauge bosons do not couple to the hypercharge but to the weak doublet number. 2. The fate of U (1)’s, proton stability and neutrino masses It is easy to see that the remaining three U (1) combinations orthogonal to Y are anomalous.

In an appropriate T-dual representation, it amounts to consider several stacks of D6-branes intersecting in the three internal tori at angles. An open string with one end on the a-th stack has charge ±1 under the U (1)a , depending on its orientation, and is neutral with respect to all others. In this section, we perform a general study of SM embedding in three brane stacks with gauge group U (3) × U (2) × U (1) [47], and present an explicit example having realistic particle content and satisfying gauge coupling unification [48].

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An extensible model of the electron by Dirac

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