By Gordon Pask, Warren S. McCulloch
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Extra resources for An Approach to Cybernetics
83 ,. ' 84 AN APPROACH TO CYBERNETICS 'automatic', but permissible operations and heuristics (broad suggestions about fruitful procedures, for example, suggestions about what is and what is not similar) arc well defined. · Often in real life control, a solution is needed but the method of achieving it is irrelevant. The network also comes into its own when we, ourselves, cannot formulate a problem. e. an inherently unstable process, and wish for order of any kind. Now efficient control does depend upon (in some sense) matching the evolutionary rules of the network to those of the world.
If thcre arc delay elements that categorize events A before B, A temporally coincident with B' and' A after B', then the machine is a predictor and its 'inferences' are predictions which may lead, through a decision rule, to actions. Imitative Controllers lmitative controllers come into their own when 110 signal P (I) is available although the knowledge of results data is intact (the term 'imitative' is due to MacKay", who examines the system in detail). Since the controller has no direct evidence of the state of its environment, it cannot 'learn to recognize' like the predictive devices.
The illustration shows an apparatus designed by C. E. G. Bailey, T. R. McKinnon Wood and myself and, whilst chiefly intended to simulate the behaviour of a trainee it is applicable also to industrial control. A motor element in Eucrates is functionally analogous to one of the 'artificial neurones' used by other workers in t his field (that is, an electrical circuit or other artifact, which imitates certain carefully specified features of a real neurone but, except in this restricted sense, is not intended as a 'neurone model").
An Approach to Cybernetics by Gordon Pask, Warren S. McCulloch