By Gerald Berk
Alternative Tracks offers a singular interpretation of industrialization and political improvement within the usa. concentrating on the severe case of railroads, Gerald Berk exhibits that substitute sorts of financial association and governmental rules existed within the past due 19th century. Constitutional offerings, now not technological imperatives or financial pursuits, made up our minds the end result within the 20th century: a centralized regulated in keeping with liberal ideas of redistribution. Alternative Tracks finds a nineteenth-century rival to this political economy―an both effective and extra democratic procedure of neighborhood railroads regulated in keeping with republican principles.
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Extra resources for Alternative Tracks: The Constitution of American Industrial Order, 1865-1917
To what extent are MPs socialised? Is it just a matter of learning the ropes, of how to carry out the job of an MP, of how to use the tools available? Or is it a matter of being socialised into already existing patterns of behaviour? In the final chapter we summarise the arguments and findings of the book and consider their implications, particularly the extent to which there are lessons to be drawn for other legislatures from the UK Parliaments we have studied. Research methods The outline of our argument and findings just given draws not only on the literature but also on empirical research we have ourselves conducted covering the two Parliaments, 1992–97 and 1997–2001.
We explore the extent to which that process may shape British MPs’ attitudes towards the House of Commons and their role and behaviour in it, and in particular whether there is evidence of convergence between the attitudes, role and behaviour of newly elected and longer-serving members. In Chapter 3 we develop a three-type model of legislative socialisation, which we see as a complex rather than a simple process, involving a variety of agents, mechanisms and processes. In Chapters 4–6 we deal in turn with each of the three types of legislative socialisation, beginning with functional socialisation – how MPs ‘learn the job’.
Together, these three questionnaires provided longitudinal data on the expectations, experience and attitudes of the 1992 and 1997 intakes, which we were then able to compare with the responses of longer-serving MPs. Our interviews were used to gather more in-depth material from a range of newly elected MPs in 1992 and 1997 and, in particular, from the House of Commons authorities and parties details of the arrangements they made for their new intakes. A separate analysis was made of the parliamentary activity of newly elected and longer-serving MPs – their participation in debates in the Chamber of the House of Commons (and from 1999 Westminster Hall debates), their use of parliamentary Questions for oral and written answer, their membership and attendance of legislative and investigative committees and their use of EDMs.
Alternative Tracks: The Constitution of American Industrial Order, 1865-1917 by Gerald Berk