By Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC
This ebook bargains either skilled cardiologists and trainees alike the chance to spot and deal with the commonest pitfalls encountered with echocardiology in regimen scientific perform. The booklet covers a chain of demanding situations starting from technical problems to issues of echocardiographic interpretation with every one part offering a sequence of simulations to check the reader's realizing of the matter. The textual content is written in a hugely functional and didactic type so that it will aid the busy medical professional by means of providing the data in a succinct, 'essentials simply' demeanour. The heavy use of fine quality illustrations serves to make sure that the suggestions defined are supported by way of real-life examples and therefore conveniently acceptable to the scientific setting.Edited via a global expert.Abundant use of full-colour permits exact illustration of pictures to have the funds for special dialogue of the suggestions involved.Didactic strategy guarantees supply of key info in viable parts hence saving time for the busy cardiologist.Includes the main common pitfalls linked to a variety of innovations therefore making sure applicability to a number of scientific settings and kit availability.
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Additional resources for 100 Challenges in Echocardiography
A fault in the distribution of the echocardiographic gel on the patient’s skin, leading to a poor air–skin interface. In summary, even if the echocardiographic examination is not of good technical quality in such situations, the information obtained can be used to resolve some simple problems. This is where the operator’s experience and skill come into play. 6 Cardiac valves VALVULAR STENOSES Echocardiographic diagnosis of valvular stenoses, such as mitral stenosis (MS) or aortic stenosis (AS), is based on the study of: • • • the morphology and motion of the stenotic valve the degree of valvular stenosis the haemodynamic consequences of the valvular stenosis.
Confusion between the flow in aortic stenosis and the flow in mitral regurgitation when using the Pedoff probe (Fig. 22) Successive recording of one flow after another makes it possible to differentiate easily between the AS and MR flows. Other elements may help to identify the aortic ejection flow, which: • • • • begins after the QRS complex, observing the isovolumetric contraction time (the flow due to MR appears from the beginning of the isovolumic contraction phase, coinciding with the mitral closing click, and continues until the mitral opening click) is framed by the opening and closing clicks of the aortic valve is of shorter duration than MR is in continuity with a possible flow due to AR that has the characteristic appearance.
An elderly patient, an incapacitating neurological or rheumatological condition, lack of cooperation from a child, intubated and ventilated patients). g. a hairy torso, so that there is no firm probe–skin contact; large breasts; postoperative scars; thoracic dressing; drains; mammary prosthesis; artificial ventilation). 1 Technical pitfalls. (a) Thoracic deformation leading to poor two-dimensional image quality in the parasternal cross-section, which is compensated for by a good view in the apical cross-section.
100 Challenges in Echocardiography by Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC